Oil Industry Glossary

ALL | # | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

#

  • /Bbl

    Per barrel

  • 1P

    Proved Reserves

  • 2D

    Two Dimensional

  • 2P

    Sum of Proved plus Probable Reserves

  • 3D

    Three Dimensional

  • 3P

    Sum of Proved plus Probable plus Possible Reserves

  • 4D

    Four Dimensional

A

  • Accumulation

    An individual body of moveable petroleum.

  • Analogous Reservoir

    An analogous reservoir is one in the same geographic area that is formed by the same, or very similar geological processes as, a reservoir in question (or under study for reserves evaluation) as regards sedimentation, diagenesis, pressure, temperature, chemical and mechanical history, and structure. It also has the same or similar geologic age, geologic features, and reservoir rock and fluid properties. Analogous features and characteristics can include approximate depth, pressure, temperature, reservoir drive mechanism, original fluid content, oil gravity, reservoir size, gross thickness, pay thickness, net-to-gross ratio, lithology, heterogeneity, porosity and permeability. The development scheme for a reservoir (e.g. as reflected by well spacing) can also be important in establishing the relevance of the analogy.

  • Associated Gas

    Associated Gas is a natural gas found in contact with or dissolved in crude oil in the reservoir. It can be further categorized as Gas-Cap Gas or Solution Gas. 

B

  • Barrels of Oil

    See Crude Oil Equivalent

  • BBbls

    Billion barrels

  • bbls

    Barrels

  • Bcpd

    Barrels of condensate per day

  • Behind-pipe Reserves

    Behind-pipe reserves are expected to be recovered from zones in existing wells, which will require additional completion work or future recompletion prior to the start of production.

  • Bitumen

    See Natural Bitumen

  • Blpd

    Barrels of liquid per day

  • Boe

    Barrels of oil equivalent @xxx mcf/bbl

  • Boepd

    Barrels of oil equivalent per day @xxx mcf/bbl

  • BOP

    Blow Out Preventer

  • Bopd

    Barrels of oil per day

  • Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP)

    The pressure at the bottom of the well. In a producing well the BHP may be the bottom hole flowing pressure or the bottom hole shut-in pressure. In a drilling or workover environment, the BHP is exerted by the column of fluid in the hole.

  • Bpd

    Barrels per day

  • Bscf

    Billion standard cubic feet

  • Bscfd

    Billion standard cubic feet per day

  • BTU

    A measure of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

  • Buy Back Agreement

    An agreement between a host government and a contractor under which the host pays the contractor an agreed price for all volumes of hydrocarbons produced by the contractor. Pricing mechanisms typically provide the contractor with an opportunity to recover investment at an agreed level of profit. These agreements may include financial incentives for more efficient, lower cost developments and production levels higher than the minimum level agreed. These agreements may give rights to oil volumes and generally carry a risk for the contractor. They may allow booking of reserves.

  • Bwpd

    Barrels of water per day

C

  • C&A

    Cased and Suspended

  • CAPEX

    Capital Expenditure

  • Carried Interest

    A carried interest is an agreement under which one party (the carrying party) agrees to pay for a portion or all of the pre-production costs of another party (the carried party) on a license in which both own a portion of the working interest. This arises when the carried party is either unwilling to bear the risk of exploration or is unable to fund the cost of exploration or development directly. Owners may enter into carried interest arrangements with existing or incoming joint venture partners at the exploration stage, the development stage, or both.

  • CNG

    Compressed Natural Gas (see Natural Gas)

  • C02

    Carbon Dioxide

  • Coal Seam Gas (CSG)

    See Coalbed Methane

  • Coalbed Methane (CBM)

    Natural gas contained in coal deposits, whether or not stored in gaseous phase. Coalbed methane, though usually mostly methane, may be produced with variable amounts of inert or even non-inert gases.

  • Commercial

    A project is commercial if the degree of commitment is such that the accumulation is expected to be developed and placed on production within a reasonable time frame. A reasonable time frame for the initiation of development depends on the specific circumstances but, in general, should be limited to around 5 years.

  • Completion

    Completion of a well. The process by which a well is brought to its final classification – basically dry hole, producer, or injector. A dry hole is completed by plugging and abandonment. A well deemed to be producible of petroleum, or used as an injector, is completed by establishing a connection between the reservoir(s) and the surface so that fluids can be produced from, or injected into the reservoir. Various methods are utilized to establish this connection, but they commonly involve the installation of some combination of borehole equipment, casing and tubing, and surface injection or production facilities.

  • Completion Interval

    The specific reservoir interval(s) that is (are) open to the borehole and connected to the surface facilities for production or injection.

  • Concession

    A grant of access for a defined area and time period that transfers certain rights to hydrocarbons that may be discovered from the host country to an enterprise. The enterprise is generally responsible for exploration, development, production and sale of hydrocarbons that may be discovered. Typically granted under a legislated fiscal system where the host country collects taxes, fees and sometimes royalty on profits earned.

  • Condensates

    Condensates are a portion of natural gas of such composition that are in the gaseous phase at temperature and pressure of the reservoirs, but that, when produced, are in the liquid phase at surface pressure and temperature.

  • Contingent Project

    Development and production of recoverable quantities has not been justified, due to conditions that may or may not be fulfilled.

  • Contingent Resources

    Those quantities of petroleum which are estimated, on a given date, to be potentially recoverable from known accumulations but which are not currently considered to be commercially recoverable.

  • Continuous-Type Deposit

    A petroleum accumulation that is pervasive throughout a large area and which is not significantly affected by hydrodynamic influences. Examples of such deposits include “basin-centre” gas and gas hydrate accumulations.

  • Conventional Crude Oil

    Petroleum found in liquid form, flowing naturally or capable of being pumped without further processing or dilution (see Crude Oil).

  • Conventional Deposit

    A discrete accumulation related to a localized geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition, typically with each accumulation bounded by a down-dip contact with an aquifer, and which is significantly affected by hydrodynamic influences, such as the buoyancy of petroleum in water.

  • Conventional Gas

    Conventional Gas is a natural gas occurring in a normal porous and per- meable reservoir rock, either in the gaseous phase or dissolved in crude oil, and which technically can be produced by normal production practices.

  • Conveyance

    Certain transactions that are in substance borrowings repayable in cash or its equivalent and shall be accounted for as borrowings and may not qualify for the recognition and reporting of oil and gas reserves. These include: 1) a) Cash advances to operators to finance exploration in return for the right to purchase oil or gas discovered. b) Funds advanced for exploration that is repayable by offset against purchases of oil or gas discovered, or in cash if insufficient oil or gas is produced by a specified date. 2) Funds advanced to an operator that are repayable in cash out of the proceeds from a specified share of future production of a producing property, until the amount advanced plus interest at a specified or determinable rate is paid in full, shall be accounted for as a borrowing and do not qualify for the recognition of reserves. The advance is a payable for the recipient of the cash and receivable for the party making the advance. Such transactions fall into a category commonly referred to as production payments.

  • Cost Recovery

    Under a typical production-sharing agreement, the contractor is responsible for the field development and all exploration and development expenses. In return, the contractor recovers costs (investments and operating expenses) out of the gross production stream. The contractor normally receives payment in oil production and is exposed to both technical and market risks.

  • Crude Oil

    Crude Oil is the portion of petroleum that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric conditions of pressure and temperature. Crude Oil may include small amounts of non-hydrocarbons produced with the liquids. Crude Oil has a viscosity of less than or equal to 10,000 centipoises at original reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure, on a gas free basis.

  • Crude Oil Equivalent

    Converting gas volumes to the oil equivalent is customarily done on the basis of the heating content or calorific value of the fuel. There are a number of methodologies in common use. Before aggregating, the gas volumes first must be converted to the same temperature and pressure. Common industry gas conversion factors usually range between 1.0 barrel of oil equivalent (boe) = 5.6 thousand standard cubic feet of gas (mscf) to 1.0 boe = 6.0 mscf.

  • Cumulative Production

    Production of oil and gas to date.

  • Current Economic Conditions

    Establishment of current economic conditions should include relevant historical petroleum prices and associated costs and may involve an averaging period that is consistent with the purpose of the reserve estimate, appropriate contract obligations, corporate procedures, and government regulations involved in reporting these reserves.

D

  • Deterministic Estimate

    The method of estimation of reserves or resources is called deterministic if a single best estimate is made based on known geological, engineering, and economic data.

  • Developed Reserves

    Developed reserves are expected to be recovered from existing wells including reserves behind pipe. Improved recovery reserves are considered developed only after the necessary equipment has been installed, or when the costs to do so are relatively minor. Developed reserves may be sub-categorized as producing or non-producing.

  • Development not Viable

    Of significant size, but awaiting development of a market or removal of other constraints to development, which may be technical, environmental, or political, for example.

  • Development on Hold

    No current plans to develop or to acquire additional data at this time.

  • Development Pending

    Requires further data acquisition and/or evaluation in order to confirm commerciality.

  • DHI

    Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator

  • Discovered

    The term applied to a petroleum accumulation/reservoir whose existence has been determined by its actual penetration by a well, which has also clearly demonstrated the existence of moveable petroleum by flow to the surface or at least some recovery of a sample of petroleum. Log and/or core data may suffice for proof of existence of moveable petroleum if an analogous reservoir is available for comparison. (See also “Known Accumulation”: Petroleum quantities that are discovered are in “known accumulations” or “known reservoirs”).

  • Discovered Petroleum­initially-in-place

    That quantity of petroleum which is estimated, on a given date, to be contained in known accumulations, plus those quantities already produced there from. Discovered Petroleum-initially-in-place may be subdivided into Commercial and Sub-commercial categories, with the estimated potentially recoverable portion being classified as Reserves and Contingent Resources respectively.

  • Dry Gas

    Dry Gas is a natural gas containing insufficient quantities of hydrocarbons heavier than methane to allow their commercial extraction or to require their removal in order to render the gas suitable for fuel use. (Also called Lean Gas)

  • Dry Hole

    A well found to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well.

  • DST

    Drill Stem Test

E

  • E&A

    Exploration and Appraisal

  • E&P

    Exploration and Production

  • EBIT

    Earnings before Interest and Tax

  • EBITA

    Earnings before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortisation

  • Economic

    In relation to petroleum reserves and resources, economic refers to the situation where the income an operation exceeds the expenses involved in, or attributable to, that operation.

  • Economic Interest

    U.S. Treasury Regulation Sec. 1. 611-1(6)(1): An economic Interest is possessed in every case in which the taxpayer has acquired by investment any Interest in mineral in place and secures, by any form of legal relationship, income derived from the extraction of the mineral … to which he must look for a return of his capital.

  • EIA

    Environmental Impact Assessment

  • EMV

    Expected Monetary Value

  • Entitlement

    Reserves consistent with the cost recovery plus profit hydrocarbons that are recoverable under the terms of the contract or lease are typically reported by the upstream contractor.

  • EOR

    Enhances Oil Recovery

  • Estimated Ultimate Recovery (EUR)

    Those quantities of petroleum which are estimated, on a given date, to be potentially recoverable from an accumulation, plus those quantities already produced there from.

  • Estimates

    Recoverable volumes for an individual accumulation or a project. In the case of reserves, and where appropriate, this range of uncertainty can be reflected in estimates for proved reserves (1P), proved plus probable reserves (2P), and proved plus probable plus possible reserves (3P) scenarios. For other resource categories, the equivalent terms Low Estimate, Best Estimate, and High Estimate are recommended.

  • Exploration

    Prospecting for undiscovered petroleum.

F

  • FDP

    Field Development Plan

  • FEED

    Front End Engineering and Design

  • Field

    An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition. There may be two or more reservoirs in a field that are separated vertically by intervening impermeable rock, laterally by local geologic barriers, or both. It could be defined differently by regulatory authorities.

  • Flare Gas

    Total volume of vented or flared gas.

  • Flow Test

    An operation on a well designed to demonstrate the existence of moveable petroleum in a reservoir by establishing flow to the surface and/or to provide an indication of the potential productivity of that reservoir. Some flow tests, such as drill stem tests (DSTs), are performed in the open hole. A DST is used to obtain reservoir fluid samples, static bottomhole pressure measurements, indications of productivity and short-term flow and pressure buildup tests to estimate permeability and damage extent. Other flow tests, such as single-point tests and multi-point tests, are performed after the well has been cased. Single-point tests typically involve a measurement or estimate of initial or average reservoir pressure and a flow rate and flowing bottomhole pressure measurement. Multi-point tests are used to establish gas well deliverability and absolute open flow potential.

  • Fluid Contacts

    Typically defined as Oil/Water Contact or Gas/Oil Contact

  • Forward Sale

    There are a variety of forms of transactions that involve the advance of funds to the owner of an interest in an oil and gas property in exchange for the right to receive the cash proceeds of production, or the production itself, arising from the future operation of the property. In such transactions, the owner almost invariably has a future performance obligation, the outcome of which is uncertain to some degree. Determination as to whether the transaction represents a sale or financing rests on the particular circumstances of each case.

  • Fuel Gas

    Gas used for field and plant operations. Substantial savings can be achieved to the operating cost of a project by avoiding the purchase of alternative supplies of gas or refined fuels such as diesel. SPE guidance allows the option to include fuel gas as part of the reserves estimate as long as an appropriate expense for the gas is included in the cash flow analysis.

G

  • g/cc

    Grams per cubic centimetre

  • Gas Balance

    In gas production operations involving multiple working interest owners, an imbalance in gas deliveries can occur. These imbalances must be monitored over time and eventually balanced in accordance with accepted accounting procedures.

  • Gas Cap Gas

    Gas-Cap Gas is a free natural gas which overlies and is in contact with crude oil in the reservoir. It is a subset of Associated Gas.

  • Gas Plant Products

    Gas Plant Products are natural gas liquids recovered from natural gas in gas processing plants and, in some situations, from field facilities. Gas Plant Products include ethane, propane, butanes, butanes-propane mixtures, natural gasoline and plant condensates, sulphur, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and helium.

  • GDT

    Gas Down to

  • Geostatistical Methods

    A variety of mathematical techniques and processes dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of masses of geological, geophysical and engineering data to (mathematically) describe the variability and uncertainties within any reservoir unit or pool; specifically related here to resource and reserve estimates, including the definition of (all) well and reservoir parameters in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions and the resultant modelling and potential prediction of various aspects of performance. Examples of such processes include: Monte Carlo simulation, 2D gridding and modelling of the spatial variability of geological and petrophysical properties, simulated annealing, object-based simulation, multiple-point statistics, the use of (semi) variograms, and 3D stochastic modelling. New applications include fuzzy mathematics, fast flow simulation, well intervention, and lithology and fluid prediction.

  • GIIP

    Gas Initially In Place

  • Gj

    Gigajoules (one billion joules)

  • GOR

    Gas Oil Ratio

  • GTL

    Gas to Liquids

  • GWC

    Gas Water Contact

H

  • H2S

    Hydrogen Sulphide

  • HDT

    Hydrocarbons Down to

  • HSE

    Health, Safety and Environment

  • HSFO

    High Sulphur Fuel Oil

  • Hydrocarbons

    Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds consisting wholly of hydrogen and carbon.

I

  • Improved Recovery

    Improved Recovery is the extraction of additional petroleum, beyond Primary Recovery, from naturally occurring reservoirs by supplementing the natural forces in the reservoir. It includes water-flooding, secondary processes, tertiary processes and any other means of supplementing natural reservoir recovery processes. (also called Enhanced Recovery)

  • IOR

    Improved Oil Recovery

  • IRR

    Internal Rate of Return

J

  • J

    Joule (Metric measurement of energy. 1 kilojoule = 0.9478BTU)

K

  • k

    Permeability

  • KB

    Kelly Bushing

  • Kj

    Kilojoule (one thousand joules)

  • Kl

    Kilolitres

  • Km

    Kilometres

  • Km2

    Square Kilometres

  • Known Accumulation

    The term accumulation is used to identify an individual body of moveable petroleum. The key requirement to consider an accumulation as known, and hence contain reserves or contingent resources, is that each accumulation/reservoir must have been penetrated by a well. In general, the well must have clearly demonstrated the existence of moveable petroleum in that reservoir by flow to surface or at least some recovery of a sample of petroleum from the well. However, where log and/or core data exist, this may suffice, provided there is a good analogy to a nearby and geologically comparable known accumulation.

  • kPa

    Pascals are the metric unit for pressure. One kilopascal (kPa) is a thousand Pascals. One kPa is approximately equal to 0.145 pounds per square inch.

  • Ktonnes

    Thousands of tonnes

  • KW

    Kilowatt

  • KWh

    Kilowatt hour

L

  • Lead

    Potential area where one or more accumulations are currently poorly defined and require more data acquisition and/or evaluation in order to be classified as a prospect. A lead will occur within a play.

  • Lease Condensate

    Lease Condensate is natural gas liquids recovered from produced gas (associated and non-associated), in gas-liquid separators or field facilities.

  • LKG

    Lowest Known Gas

  • LKH

    Lowest Known Hydrocarbons

  • LKO

    Lowest Known Oil

  • LNG

    Liquefies Natural Gas

  • Low/Best/High

    The range of uncertainty reflects a reasonable range of estimated potentially

  • LPG

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas

  • LTI

    Lost Time Injury

  • LWD

    Logging While Drilling

M

  • m

    Metres

  • M

    Thousand

  • MDT

    Modular Dynamic Tester

  • MDT

    Measured Depth

  • MDT

    Measured Depth

  • Mean

    Arithmetic average for a set of numbers

  • Median

    Middle value in a set of values

  • MFT

    Multi Formation Tester

  • Mj

    Megajoules (one million joules)

  • MM

    Million

  • Mm3

    Thousand cubic metres

  • Mm3d

    Thousand cubic metres per day

  • MMBbls

    Million of barrels

  • MMscf

    Million standard cubic feet

  • MMscfd

    Million standard cubic feet per day

  • Mode

    Value that exists most frequently in a set of values = most likely

  • Mscf

    Thousand standard cubic feet

  • Mscfd

    Thousand standard cubic feet per day

  • MWD

    Measuring While Drilling

  • mya

    million years ago

N

  • N2

    Nitrogen

  • Natural Bitumen

    Natural Bitumen is the portion of petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits. In its natural state it usually contains sulphur, metals and other non-hydrocarbons. Natural Bitumen has a viscosity greater than 10,000 centipoises measured at original temperature in the deposit and atmospheric pressure, on a gas free basis. In its natural viscous state, it is not normally recoverable at commercial rate through a well. Natural Bitumen generally requires upgrading prior to normal refining. (Also called Crude Bitumen).

  • Natural Gas

    Natural Gas is the portion of petroleum that exists either in the gaseous phase or is in solution in crude oil in natural underground reservoirs, and which is gaseous at atmospheric conditions of pressure and temperature. Natural Gas may include amounts of non-hydrocarbons.

  • Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)

    Natural Gas Liquids are those portions of natural gas which are recovered as liquids in separators, field facilities or gas processing plants. Natural Gas Liquids include but are not limited to ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and natural gasoline. Condensate may or may not be included.

  • Natural Gas Liquids to Gas Ratio

    Ratio of natural gas liquids to gas (in barrels/million cubic feet) in an oil field, calculated using measured natural gas liquids and gas volumes at stated conditions.

  • Net Profits Interest

    An interest that receives a portion of the net proceeds from a well, typically after all costs have been paid.

  • Net Working Interest

    A company’s working interest reduced by royalties or share of production owing to others under applicable lease and fiscal terms. (See Working Interest)

  • Non Hydrocarbon Gas

    In the event that non-hydrocarbon gases are present, the reported volumes should reflect the condition of the gas at the point of sale. Correspondingly, the accounts will reflect the value of the gas product at the point of sale. Hence, if gas sold as produced includes a proportion of carbon dioxide, for example, the reserves and production should also include that CO2. In the case of the CO2 being extracted before sale and the sales gas containing only hydrocarbon gases, the reserves and production should reflect only the hydrocarbon gases that will be sold.

  • Non-Associated Gas

    Non-Associated Gas is a natural gas found in a natural reservoir that does not contain crude oil.

  • Non-Conventional Gas

    Non-Conventional Gas is a natural gas found in unusual underground situations such as very impermeable reservoirs, hydrates, and coal deposits.

  • Non-producing Reserves

    Reserves subcategorized as non-producing include shut-in and behind-pipe reserves. Shut-in reserves are expected to be recovered from (1) completion intervals which are open at the time of the estimate, but which have not started producing, (2) wells which were shut-in for market conditions or pipeline connections, or (3) wells not capable of production for mechanical reasons. Behind-pipe reserves are expected to be recovered from zones in existing wells, which will require additional completion work or future recompletion prior to the start of production.

  • NPV

    Net Present Value

O

  • OBM

    Oil Based Mud

  • ODT

    Oil Down to

  • Offset Well Location

    Potential drill location adjacent to an existing well. The offset distance may be governed by well spacing regulations. Proved volumes on the existing well are indicated by either conclusive formation test or production. For proved volumes to be assigned to an offset well location there must be conclusive, unambiguous technical data which supports the reasonable certainty of production of hydrocarbon volumes and sufficient legal acreage to economically justify the development without going below the shallower of the fluid contact or the lowest known hydrocarbon.

  • On Production

    Currently producing and selling petroleum to market.

  • Operator

    The company or individual responsible for managing an exploration, development, or production operation.

  • OPEX

    Operating Expenditure

  • Overlift / Underlift

    Production overlift or underlift can occur in annual records because of the necessity for companies to lift their entitlement in parcel sizes to suit the available shipping schedules as agreed among the parties. At any given financial year-end, a company may be in overlift or underlift. Based on the production matching the company’s accounts, production should be reported in accord with and equal to the liftings actually made by the company during the year, and not on the production entitlement for the year.

  • OWC

    Oil Water Contact

P

  • P&A

    Plugged and Abandoned – The permanent plugging of a dry hole or of a well that no longer produces petroleum or is no longer capable of producing petroleum profitably. Several steps are involved in the abandonment of a well: permission for abandonment and procedural requirements are secured from official agencies; the casing is removed and salvaged if possible; and one or more cement plugs and/or mud are placed in the borehole to prevent migration of fluids between the different formations penetrated by the borehole.

  • P10

    10% Probability

  • P50

    50% Probability

  • P90

    90% Probability

  • Penetration

    The intersection of a wellbore with a reservoir.

  • Petroleum

    Petroleum is a naturally occurring mixture consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons in the gaseous, liquid or solid phase.

  • Petroleum-in-Place

    Petroleum-in-Place is the total quantity of petroleum that is estimated to exist originally in naturally occurring reservoirs. Oil-in-place, gas-in-place, bitumen-in­place, are defined in the same manner.

  • PI

    Productivity Index

  • Pilot Project

    A small scale test or trial operation that is used to assess the suitability of a method for commercial application.

  • Pj

    Petajoules (1015 joules)

  • Planned for Development

    Satisfies all the criteria for reserves, and there is a firm intent to develop, but detailed development planning and/or necessary approvals/contracts have yet to be finalized.

  • Play

    Recognized prospective trend of potential prospects, but which requires more data acquisition and/or evaluation to define specific leads or prospects.

  • Pool

    See Reservoir.

  • Possible Reserves

    Possible reserves are those unproved reserves which analysis of geological and engineering data suggests are less likely to be recoverable than probable reserves. In this context, when probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 10% probability that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of estimated proved, plus probable, plus possible reserves. In general, possible reserves may include (1) reserves which, based on geological interpretations, could possibly exist beyond areas classified as probable, (2) reserves in formations that appear to be petroleum bearing, based on log and core analysis but may not be productive at commercial rates, (3) incremental reserves attributed to infill drilling that are subject to technical uncertainty, (4) reserves attributed to improved recovery methods when (a) a project or pilot is planned, but not in operation and (b) rock, fluid, and reservoir characteristics are such that a reasonable doubt exists that the project will be commercial, and (5) reserves in an area of the formation that appears to be separated from the proved area by faulting and geological interpretation indicates the subject area is structurally lower than the proved area. Often referred to as P3.

  • Pressure

    The force distributed over a surface, usually measured in pounds force per square inch, or lbf/ in.2, or psi, in US oilfield units.

  • Primary Recovery

    Primary recovery is the extraction of petroleum from reservoirs utilizing only the natural energy available in the reservoirs to move fluids through the reservoir rock or other points of recovery.

  • Probabilistic Estimate

    The method of estimation is called probabilistic when the known geological, engineering, and economic data are used to generate a range of estimates and their associated probabilities.

  • Probable reserves

    Probable reserves are those unproved reserves which analysis of geological and engineering data suggests are more likely than not to be recoverable. In this context, when probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 50% probability that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of estimated proved plus probable reserves. In general, probable reserves may include (1) reserves anticipated to be proved by normal step-out drilling where sub-surface control is inadequate to classify these reserves as proved, (2) reserves in formations that appear to be productive, based on well log characteristics, but lack core data or definitive tests and which are not analogous to producing or proved reservoirs in the area, (3) incremental reserves attributable to infill drilling that could have been classified as proved if closer statutory spacing had been approved at the time of the estimate, (4) reserves attributable to improved recovery methods that have been established by repeated commercially successful applications when (a) a project or pilot is planned, but not in operation and (b) rock, fluid, and reservoir characteristics appear favourable for commercial application, (5) reserves in an area of the formation that appears to be separated from the proved area by faulting and the geologic interpretation indicates the subject area is structurally higher than the proved area, (6) reserves attributable to a future workover, treatment, re-treatment, change of equipment, or other mechanical procedures, where such procedure has not been proved successful in wells which exhibit similar behaviour in analogous reservoirs, and (7) incremental reserves in proved reservoirs where an alternative interpretation of performance or volumetric data indicates more reserves than can be classified as proved. Often referred to as P2.

  • Producing Reserves

    Reserves subcategorized as producing are expected to be recovered from intervals which are open and producing at the time of the estimate. Improved recovery is considered producing only after the improved recovery project is in operation.

  • Production

    The quantity of petroleum produced in a given period.

  • Production Sharing Contract

    In a production-sharing contract between a contractor and a host government, the contractor typically bears all risk and costs for exploration, development, and production. In return, if exploration is successful, the contractor is given the opportunity to recover the investment from production, subject to specific limits and terms. The contractor also receives a stipulated share of the production remaining after cost recovery, referred to as profit hydrocarbons. Ownership is retained by the host government; however, the contractor normally receives title to the prescribed share of the volumes as they are produced. Reserves consistent with the cost recovery plus profit hydrocarbons that are recoverable under the terms of the contract are typically reported by the upstream contractor.

  • Project

    This represents the link between the petroleum accumulation and the decision-making process, including budget allocation. A project may, for example, constitute the development of a single reservoir or field, or an incremental development for a producing field, or the integrated development of a group of several fields. In general, an individual project will represent the level at which a decision is made on whether or not to proceed (i.e., spend money), and there should be an associated range of estimated recoverable volumes for that project.

  • Prorationing

    The allocation of production among reservoirs and wells or pipeline allocation of capacity among shippers, etc.

  • Prospect

    Potential accumulation that is sufficiently well defined to represent a viable drilling target.

  • Prospective Resources

    Those quantities of petroleum which are estimated, on a given date, to be potentially recoverable from undiscovered accumulations.

  • Proved Developed Reserves

    Proved Developed Reserves are those Proved Reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells and facilities and by existing operating methods. Improved recovery reserves can be considered as Proved Developed Reserves only after an improved recovery project has been installed and favourable response has occurred or is expected with a reasonable degree of certainty. (See Developed Reserves) Developed reserves are expected to be recovered from existing wells, including reserves behind pipe. Improved recovery reserves are considered developed only after the necessary equipment has been installed, or when the costs to do so are relatively minor. Developed reserves may be sub-categorized as producing or non-producing. Producing: Reserves subcategorized as producing are expected to be recovered from completion intervals which are open and producing at the time of the estimate. Improved recovery reserves are considered producing only after the improved recovery project is in operation. Non-producing: Reserves subcategorized as non-producing include shut-in and behind-pipe reserves. Shut-in reserves are expected to be recovered from (1) completion intervals which are open at the time of the estimate, but which have not started producing, (2) wells which were shut-in for market conditions or pipeline connections, or (3) wells not capable of production for mechanical reasons. Behind-pipe Reserves are expected to be recovered from zones in existing wells, which will require additional completion work or future re-completion prior to the start of production.

  • Proved Reserves

    Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be commercially recoverable, from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. Proved reserves can be categorized as development or undeveloped. If deterministic methods are used, the term reasonable certainty is intended to express a high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered. If probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 90% probability that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate. Often referred to as P1, sometimes referred to as “proven”.

  • Proved Undeveloped Reserves

    Proved Undeveloped Reserves are those Proved Reserves that are expected to be recovered from future wells and facilities, including future improved recovery projects which are anticipated with a high degree of certainty in reservoirs which have previously shown favourable response to improved recovery projects. (See Undeveloped)

  • PSDM

    Post Stack Depth Migration

  • psi

    Pounds per square inch

  • psia

    Pounds per square inch absolute

  • psig

    Pounds per square inch gauge

  • Purchase Contracts

    A contract to purchase oil and gas provides the right to purchase a specified volume at an agreed price for a defined term. Under purchase contracts, exposure to technical and market risks are borne by the seller. While a purchase or supply contract can provide long-term access to reserves through production, it does not convey the right to extract, nor does it convey a financial interest in the reserves. Consequently, reserves would not be recognized by the buyer under this type of agreement.

  • PVT

    Pressure Volume Temperature

R

  • Range of Uncertainty of recoverable hydrocarbon quantities

    See Resource Uncertainty Categories.

  • Raw Natural Gas

    Raw Natural Gas is natural gas as it is produced from the reservoir. It includes varying amounts of the heavier hydrocarbons which liquefy at atmospheric conditions, and water vapor; and may also contain sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, and other non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen or helium, but which, nevertheless, is exploitable for its hydrocarbon content. Raw Natural Gas is often not suitable for direct utilization by most types of consumers.

  • Reasonable Certainty

    If deterministic methods for estimating reserves are used, then reasonable certainty is intended to express a high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered. If probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 90% probability that the volumes actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate. The Security and Exchange Commission considers the concept of reasonable certainty to imply that, as more technical data becomes available, a positive, or upward, revision is much more likely than a negative, or downward, revision.

  • Recoverable Resources

    Those quantities of hydrocarbons which are estimated to be producible from accumulations, either discovered or undiscovered.

  • Recovery Efficiency

    A numeric expression of that portion of in-place quantities of petroleum estimated to be recoverable by specific processes or projects, most often represented as a percentage.

  • Reserves

    Reserves are those quantities of hydrocarbons which are anticipated to be commercially recovered from known accumulations from a given date forward.

  • Reservoir

    A subsurface rock formation containing one or more individual and separate natural accumulations of moveable petroleum that is confined by impermeable rock and is characterized by a single-pressure system. Also referred to as Pool.

  • Resource Uncertainty Categories

    Any estimation of resource quantities for an accumulation or group of accumulations is subject to uncertainty and should, in general, be expressed as a range. The function of the three primary categories of reserves (proved, probable, possible) is to illustrate the range of uncertainty in the estimate of the potentially recoverable volume of petroleum from a known accumulation. Such estimates, which are done initially for each well or reservoir, may be made deterministically or probabilistically and are then aggregated for the accumulation/project as a whole. Provided a similar logic is applied for all volumetric estimates (including contingent and prospective resources), the estimate of uncertainty for each accumulation can be tracked over time from exploration through discovery, development, and production. This approach provides an extremely effective basis for evaluating the validity of the methodology used for the estimate of potentially recoverable volumes. The range of uncertainty reflects a reasonable range of estimated potentially recoverable volumes for an individual accumulation or a project. In the case of reserves, and where appropriate, this range of uncertainty can be reflected in estimates for proved reserves (IP), proved, plus probable reserves (2P), and proved, plus probable, plus possible reserves (3P) scenarios. For other resource categories, the equivalent terms low estimate, best estimate, and high estimate are recommended.

  • Resources

    See Total petroleum initially-in-place.

  • Revenue Sharing Contracts

    Revenue-sharing contracts are very similar to the production-sharing contracts described earlier, with the exception of contractor payment. With these contracts, the contractor usually receives a defined share of revenue rather than a share of the production. As in the production- sharing contract, the contractor provides the capital and technical expertise required for exploration and development. If exploration efforts are successful, the contractor can recover those costs from the sale revenues. A very similar type of agreement is commonly known as a risked-service contract. This type of agreement is also often used where the contracting party provides expertise and capital to rehabilitate or institute improved recovery operations in an existing field. Provided that the requirements for reserves recognition are satisfied, reported reserves are typically based on the economic interest held or the financial benefit received.

  • Reversionary Interest

    The right of future possession of an interest in a property when a specified condition has been met.

  • Rf

    Recovery factor

  • RFT

    Repeat Formation Tester

  • Risk

    The probability of loss or failure. As “risk” is generally associated with the negative outcome, the term “chance” is preferred for general usage to describe the probability of a discrete event occurring.

  • Risk and Reward

    Risk and reward associated with oil and gas production activities stems primarily from the variation in revenues from technical and economic risks. Many companies use exposure to risk in conjunction with the rights that they are assigned to operate and to take volumes in kind to support reserves reporting. Technical risk affects a company’s ability to physically extract and recover hydrocarbons and is usually dependent on a number of technical parameters. Economic risk is a function of the success of a project and is critically dependent on the ability to economically recover the in-place hydrocarbons.

  • Royalty

    Royalty refers to payments that may be due to the host government, mineral owner, or landowner, in return for the producer having access to the petroleum. Many agreements allow for the producer to lift the royalty volumes, sell them on behalf of the royalty owner, and pay the proceeds to the owner. A few agreements provide for the royalty to be taken only in kind by the royalty owner

  • RT

    Rotary Table

  • Rw

    Resistivity of water

S

  • SCAL

    Special core analysis

  • Scf

    Standard cubic feet

  • Scf/ton

    Standard cubic feet per ton

  • Scfd

    Standard cubic feet per day

  • Shut-in Reserves

    Shut-in reserves are expected to be recovered from (1) completion intervals which are open at the time of the estimate, but which have not started producing, (2) wells which were shut-in for market conditions or pipeline connections, or (3) wells not capable of production for mechanical reasons.

  • SO

    Oil Saturation

  • Solution Gas

    Solution Gas is a natural gas which is dissolved in crude oil in the reservoir at the prevailing reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. It is a subset of Associated Gas.

  • Sour Natural Gas

    Sour Natural Gas is a natural gas that contains sulphur, sulphur compounds and/or carbon dioxide in quantities that may require removal for effective use.

  • ss

    Subsea

  • stb

    Stock tank barrel

  • Stochastic

    Adjective defining a process involving or containing a random variable or variables or involving chance or probability such as a stochastic stimulation.

  • STOIIP

    Stock tank oil initially in place

  • Sub-Commercial

    A project is Sub-commercial if the degree of commitment is not such that the accumulation is expected to be developed and placed on production within a reasonable time frame. A reasonable time frame for the initiation of development depends on the specific circumstances but, in general, should be limited to around 5 years.

  • Sw

    Water Saturation

  • Sweet Natural Gas

    Sweet Natural Gas is a natural gas that contains no sulphur or sulphur compounds at all, or in such small quantities that no processing is necessary for their removal in order that the gas may be used directly as a non-corrosive domestic heating fuel.

T

  • T

    Tonnes

  • TD

    Total Depth

  • Te

    Tonnes equivalent

  • THP

    Tubing Head pressure

  • Tj

    Terajoules (1012 joules)

  • TOC

    Total Organic Carbon

  • TOP

    Take or Pay

  • Total Petroleum Initially-in-place

    The entire resource base (Total Petroleum-initially-in-place) is generally accepted to be all those estimated quantities of petroleum contained in the sub­surface, as well as those quantities already produced. This was defined previously by the WPC as “Petroleum-in-place” and has been termed “Resource Base” by others.

  • Tpd

    Tonnes per day

  • Tscf

    Trillion standard cubic feet

  • TVD

    True Vertical Depth

  • TVDss

    True Vertical Depth Subsea

U

  • Uncertainty

    The range of possible outcomes in an estimate.

  • Unconventional

    An umbrella term for oil and natural gas that is produced by means that do not meet the criteria for conventional production. What has qualified as unconventional at any particular time is a complex function of resource characteristics, the available exploration and production technologies, the economic environment, and the scale, frequency and duration of production from the resource. Perceptions of these factors inevitably change over time and often differ among users of the term. At present, the term is used in reference to oil and gas resources whose porosity, permeability, fluid trapping mechanism, or other characteristics differ from conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Coalbed methane, gas hydrates, shale gas, fractured reservoirs, and tight gas sands are considered unconventional resources.

  • Under Development

    All necessary approvals have been obtained, and development of the project is underway.

  • Undeveloped Reserves

    Undeveloped reserves are expected to be recovered: (1) from new wells on undrilled acreage, (2) from deepening existing wells to a different reservoir, or (3) where a relatively large expenditure is required to (a) recomplete an existing well or (b) install production or transportation facilities for primary or improved recovery projects.

  • Unitization

    Process whereby owners of adjoining properties allocate reserves, production, costs, etc.

  • Unproved Reserves

    Unproved reserves are based on geologic and/or engineering data similar to that used in estimates of proved reserves; but technical, contractual, economic, or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classified as proved. Unproved reserves may be further classified as probable reserves and possible reserves. Unproved reserves may be estimated assuming future economic conditions different from those prevailing at the time of the estimate. The effect of possible future improvements in economic conditions and technological developments can be expressed by allocating appropriate quantities of reserves to the probable and possible classifications.

  • Unrecoverable Resources

    The portion of discovered or undiscovered petroleum-initially-in-place quantities not currently considered to be recoverable. A portion of these quantities may become recoverable in the future as commercial circumstances change, technological developments occur, or addition data is acquired.

V

  • VSP

    Vertical Seismic Profiling

W

  • WC

    Water Cut

  • Wet Gas

    Wet (Rich) Gas is a natural gas containing sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons heavier than methane to allow their commercial extraction or to require their removal in order to render the gas suitable for fuel use.

  • Working Interest (WI)

    A company’s equity interest in a project before reduction for royalties or production share owed to others under the applicable fiscal terms.